The National Institutes of Health recently decided to drastically reduce the number of chimpanzees used in NIH-funded biomedical research. “Sound Medicine” speaks with three experts in to discuss the ramifications of the NIH decision. Jeffrey Kahn, Ph.D., MPH, served as the chairman of the Institute of Medicine committee that recommended the reduction. William Hopkins, Ph.D., discusses the history of chimpanzees in biomedical research and why they are still valuable test subjects. Eric Meslin, Ph.D., weighs in from a bioethical standpoint.